guava

Guava Cultivation

Guava Cultivation Method

Inroduction To Guava Cultivation

Guava fruit is one of the famous tropical fruits found in Asian countries as well as in other parts of the world which is called tropical apple. Guava fruits are very popular in India and Southeast Asia. The fruit is said to be native to Mexico, Central America and South America. Commercial cultivation of guava is very successful due to low maintenance and high yield. Guava plants are hardy and give good yields with a little care. Guava plants can be grown in both tropical and subtropical regions in rainfed as well as irrigated conditions. Guava fruits are grown for their excellent health benefits. Guava fruits are grown for their best health benefits. Guava fruit can be eaten raw (fresh fruit) and used in beverages, candy, ice cream, dried snacks, fruit bars and desserts. There are many improved / hybrid / commercial varieties available in the specific region. Guava belongs to the family “Meritsisi” and the genus “Cesium”. When it comes to the size of a guava, it is as small as an apricot to the size of a grape. Guava fruit varieties (cultivation) have white, red, pink flesh. Commercial farmers usually choose fields / grafting for propaganda because seed growth is extremely slow and time consuming in harvesting. Generally, the guava fruit measures 5 to 10 cm long and is out there in round and oval shape counting on the species (cultivator). Now-a-days commercial growers are pursuing high-density planting and high-density planting for higher yields in guava fruit cultivation. Guava fruit are often grown in pots / containers, backyards, greenhouses and polyhouses.

 

 

Major countries of Guava Cultivation

In the list of guava production there are top ten countries in the world are given below.

1. Pakistan.

2. China.

3. Thailand.

4. India.

5. Mexico.

6.Indonesia.

7.Brazil.

8.Bangladesh.

9. Philippines.

10. Nigeria.

Health Benefits of Guava

  • Guava may be a good source of vitamins and minerals. This fruit is a superb source of vitamin C, A and Antioxidants, which helps in boosting the system .
  • Guava fruit may be a good source of potassium.
  • Guava fruit is low in calories and fat.
  • Guava may be a rich source of soluble dietary fiber and thus helps within the treatment of constipation.
  • Eating guava fruit regularly reduces the danger of cancer.
  • Guava fruits are good for diabetics.
  • Guava fruits help in lowering triglyceride and bad cholesterol (LDL) levels, so these fruits are good for heart health.
  • Guava fruits improve eyesight thanks to the presence of vitamin A
  • Guava fruits are recommended during pregnancy to supplement vitamin BC, or vitamin B9.
  • Guava fruits are good for brain function.
  • The anti-inflammatory action and a strong antibacterial ability of guava trees helps to fight against infections.
  • Guava fruits help in weight loss.
  • Guava is sweet for preventing cough and cold.
  • Guava has aging properties. So it’s good for the skin

 

Climate for Guava Cultivation

Guava is often grown in both tropical and subtropical climates. These trees can get older to 1500 meters above water level (m.s.l). The low night temperature in winter season ensures the simplest quality of guava. generally , older guava plants can withstand high temperatures and drought conditions. However, high temperatures during the flowering and fruit development phase can cause fruit drop and reduce yield. It’s very cold because it can kill young plants. Guava is often grown in both rain-fed and irrigated conditions. When it comes to the need for rain for the crop, the average annual rainfall of 100 to 125 cm is more than enough to grow guava plants.

 

Soil Requirement for Guava Cultivation

Being hardy in nature, guava plants are often grown during a wide selection of soils from heavy soils to Very light sandy soils. However, they have well-drained, well-drained, loamy soil to supply an honest crop. Avoid waterway conditions because it can cause plant disease. A soil pH of 4.5 to 7.0 is right for planting guava. River basins are very suitable for growing guava fruits. If you’re planning for commercial cultivation, it’s advisable to travel for soil testing. Any nutritional gap should be filled supported soil test results.

 

 

Land Preparration For Guava Cultivation

The land should be deeply plowed, tied and planted before planting. Confirm to bring the soil to the proper bitter stage. Remove any weeds from previous crops and prepare the soil in such how that maximum water is removed. If the soil isn’t fertile, it’s recommended to feature well-drained farm yard fertilizer (FMY) to the essential nutrients. This organic should be applied within the final plow during soil preparation. Dig a pit size of 1 meter x 1 meter x 1 meter and fill Hell with topsoil mixed with Farm Yard Fertilizer (FMY) or 25 kg of garden manure.

Soil Sterilization in Guava Cultivation

Soil sterilization is additionally a crucial function that raises soil temperature and kills many soil organisms, including plant pathogens and insects. This process is often achieved both physically and chemically. Typically, physical means include treatment with steam and solar power, while chemical means include herbal remedies and fumigation. However, it also can be obtained through plastic mulch film.

Planting Season For Guava Cultivation

Guava plant can be planted at any time of the year. But for that, need a better irrigation system. If we have proper irrigation facility, then we should not worry

Propagation, Planting and Spacing in Guava Cultivation:-

Propagation is completed by seeds, cuttings, sorting and air layering. Seed germination takes longer. Therefore, the foremost widely used method of guava cultivation is grafting and air layering.

The field should be prepared before the beginning of the monsoon season. Generally, the planting process should be done before the onset of rains, adopting a square planting system. Plant spacing varies. Commercial farmers should adopt a distance of 5 meters – 8 meters. Typically, this is often followed by a distance of 5 meters x 5 meters or 6 meters x 6 meters. Guava also can be planted in hedge row systems at intervals of 6 m x 2 m or 6 m x 3 m.
For high density and very high density planting, the spacing between rows and plants should be short. Typically, in high-density planting, the row-to-row spacing is 2 meters and therefore the plant-to-plant spacing is 1 meter.

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High Density Guava Planting.

Commercial growers can follow the high density planting method to realize higher yields in Guava cultivation. a number of the commercial/hybrid varieties do alright under HDP.

In High density method (HDP), cuttings are planted at 3 meter x 3 meter which can accommodate 555 plants / hectare, whereas in a traditional method of planting (6 meter x 6 meter spacing) it only accommodates 277 plants / hectare.

A higher fruit yield of 160 kg/tree is often expected in HDP with spacing of three meter x 3 meter where as traditional 6 meter x 6 meter yields only 124 kg/tree.

Ultra High density (UHDP) in Guava Cultivation

  •  Well, commercial guava growers may consider this method, surely hybrid guava varieties.
  • In this method, a “Meadow Orcharding” system is followed and this technique provides tons of productivity with high fruit quality.
  • In this method, there’s an area of 5000 plants / ha in plants at a distance of 1 m x 2 m. Canopy management is feasible during this method of planting by topping and hedging.
  • Plants should be 2 months before planting in October to permit new shoots to emerge below the cut end.
  • Each new twig is lengthened again to a length of fifty lengths to feature more twigs.
  • The work of returning all the twigs is repeated annually.
  • This method of planting ensures sowing, compact canopy, better fruiting and straightforward gardening.
  • The yield is from the primary year of cultivation and may surrender to 55 tons per hectare. Yields usually start at 12 tons per hectare and reach a maximum in 4 to five years.

Irrigation in Guava Cultivation

Proper irrigation of any crop ensures good growth and yield of plants in guava cultivation.

Guava plants need constant soil moisture, especially within the season from December to May. However, the guava crop doesn’t need water during the season. Generally, the necessity and frequency of watering depends on the age and stage of the plants. Immediately after planting within the field for the formation of roots within the first irrigation soil. Should tend later. Generally, on the average , a guava plant needs 15 to 30 liters per day. The simplest method of irrigation in guava cultivation is drop irrigation. Drip irrigation provides an efficient thanks to use water in areas where water may be a major problem. Commercial farmers also can get subcidy on drip system from local horticulture schemes. If the drip system is installed, irrigation are often done on alternate days.

Drip Irrigation Advantages in Guva Cultivation

  • There are many benefits to employing a drip system within the field of guava.
  • Water saving and useful, especially in low tidal areas.
  • Ultimately, it increases plant growth and crop yields.
  • Drip irrigation saves energy and labor costs.
  • Drip irrigation is best suited for low tide holding capacity and insulated area soils.
  • Reduces the expansion of herbs because water isn’t utilized in the plant basin.
  • Drip irrigation improves fertilizer application efficiency.
  • Drip irrigation improves the standard of guava fruits.
  • Drip irrigation reduces the concentration of salt within the root zone of plants.

Inter-Crops In Guava Cultivation

Guava growers can earn extra income through intercropping during the pre-impact stages. Green lentils, yellow lentils and short-term vegetable crops like tomatoes, peppers, okra, French beans are often grown as intercrops. Intercropping also enhances soil fertility by increasing the ‘N’ content in it.

Manures and Fertilizers in Guava Cultivation

To increase the yield of guava, it’s necessary to use balanced fertilizer and fertilizer. Kg kg and N: P: 1 kg per tree Field yard fertilizer during March and October in 2 divided doses. to extend fruit yield, spray urea 1 ٪ + zinc sulphate twice a year during March and October. just in case of boron deficient soil, spray 0.3% borax during flowering and fruit set stage.

Weed Management

Weed control may be a vital task that must be done frequently to make sure the healthy growth of plants by using them properly. Proper weed control is important for healthy plants to grow and produce more. The grass control plant basin also checks for damage caused by fertilizer and moisture. Mulching are often practiced using plastic to mop, dried leaves or paddy straw. Chemical herbs to regulate weeds also can be used. Shallow planting are often planted between the rows to get rid of weeds. Grasses around guava trees should be hand-fed before fertilizer and fertilizer application then mixed with the material.

 

Training and Pruning in Guava Cultivation: -

Plants should be trained at a young stage to create a robust framework and avoid weak rocks. Fruit trees should be trained like low-headed trees to facilitate multiple lifting. An open center for delayed training are often adopted. In young guava plants the support branches should return to encourage secondary branches. Root suckers, water sprouts and cross branches should be eliminated. To check for overcrowding and to regulate plant height, the orbital terminal shoots should return to A level of roughly 42 cm in alternate years. Harvesting also occurs during the harvest period because the fruit is pulled along side the pellet on which it’s tolerated. Harvesting should usually be done after harvesting or within the spring. Summer pruning isn’t recommended because it can damage the plant thanks to sunburn.

 

Pests and diseases in guava cultivation: -

The main pests and diseases found in guava cultivation are as follows.

Fruit fly:

  • Symptoms: Within the monsoon season, the adult lays eggs on the surface of the fruit. When hatched, maggots enter the fruit and cause a scarcity of fruit. This results in a drastic reduction in production.
  • Control measures: It’s recommended to burn and burn all the affected fruits of guava. During the summer months, the soil round the guava tree should be sifted and sprayed with an answer of malathion 0.05%.
 

Fair bugs:

  • Symptoms: Mealy bugs invite juice from young guava leaves, twigs and flowers. Affected guava plants will dry out and yield will decrease.
  • Control measures: Affected guava plants should be tied with polyethylene to stop ups from rising above the soil surface and 0.1 0.1 metaside sprays are suggested to regulate this.

Wilt:

 
  • Symptoms: Guava is caused by chicken fungus. Affected plants show leaf apricots, after which the leaves and twigs need to be dried with the tip, and eventually the entire guava tree is cleaned.
  • Control measures: To regulate this, apply 15 grams of bovine in each plant basin after harvesting. It’s better to grow disease-resistant varieties.
  • Note: Contact your local horticulture department for symptoms and control of pests and diseases. They’re the simplest solution for pest control in guava production

Harvesting

Harvesting depends on the variability . Hybrid varieties take less time to succeed in the harvest stage. Planting plants by air layer is typically tolerated in 2-3 years. However, they need full tolerance at the age of 8-10 years. A scale or fruit-breaking machine are often wont to pick fruit from guava trees.

Yield:-

The yield of guava crop depends on many factors like age of various sorts of plants, soil type, irrigation, cultivation methods and climate. on the average , anyone can get a crop yield per hectare

Marketing Of Guavas:-

Due to their perishable nature, guava fruits are immediately harvested in the local market. Send later. 5. The shelf life of guava can be extended up to 3 weeks by keeping it at a relatively low temperature of C and 80 relative humidity. Generally, guava fruits are graded based on size and quality. Classified fruits can be packed and delivered to local markets.

Bottom Line Commercial Guava Cultivation is very profitable with low maintenance.

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