Strawberry Cultivation | Strawberry Cultivation Pakistan | best method of Cultivation
Table of Contents
Strawberries (Farigaria sp) are relatively native to regions, but there are varieties which can be grown during a hotter climate. In Pakistan, it’s generally cultivated within the hills. Its main centers of cultivation are Gilgit Baltistan (district), Azad Kashmir, muree, Islamabad and Hazara valley. Strawberries are the foremost soluble of small fruits. Strawberries are grown throughout Europe, in every state within the us, also as in Canada and South America. In these regions, global global climate change and thus the cutting and marketing adaptation of the strawberry plant are widely adapted, which bear fruit most of the years. Strawberries are a delicious fruit that’s fresh in some ways. It also makes excellent dessert and jam thanks to its aroma, and should be an honest source of vitamin C . it is a soft and really destructive fruit, often frozen within the West.
Climate and soil:
Strawberries thrive in temperate climates. It is a brief day plant, requiring about 8 to 10 hours of exposure to the sun for flowering. In winter, the plants grow and do not remain dormant. Exposure to low temperatures during this era helps to interrupt the space between plants. In spring when the days get longer and thus, the temperature rises. The plants begin to grow again and begin to bloom. Varieties that grow in mild sub-climates do not need cold and grow during the win. From the aim of view of the response to the length of the sunshine period, strawberries are divided into two groups: (1) varieties that produce long and short light, pressure varieties, and (2) Types that only illuminate for a quick period of some time most commercial types. Strawberries need well-swollen medium loam soil, which is rich within the organic matter. The soil should be slightly acidic with a pH of 5.7 to 6.5. Root formation is poor at high pH. Excessive calcium within the soil causes the leaves to point out yellow. In light soils and rich within the organic matter, runner formation is best. Strawberries shouldn’t grow on the same soil for several years. It’s better to plant during a field with manure. Alkaline soils and soils infected with nematodes should be avoided
Numerous types are available. For mountainous areas, Chandelier, Corona and Stuff varieties are suitable. Some introductions from California, like Toure, Toiga and Solana, could even be even more successful. For the plains of northern Pakistan, the Pusa Early dwarf which contains dwarf plants, could also be a really strong wedge-shaped fruit. Another kind of sweet-smelling but soft fruit is Katherine Sweet. variety of the foremost successful varieties within the hotter parts of the us are: Premier Florida 90, Missionary, Blackmore, Clonver and Clondike. variety of them could even be successful for cultivation within the Pakistan plains.
Advertising is done by runners who are formed after the open season. Plants may be allowed to have as many runners as possible, but not fruit. All plants with a good root system should be used for new planting. With excellent attention and care, a plant usually produces 12 to 18 runners.
To plant strawberries, the soil should be prepared by deep plowing followed by harvesting. Liberal amounts of organic manure should be added to the soil before planting. Strawberries can be planted on flat beds, in the form of hill rows or mat rows, or it can also be planted on raised beds. In irrigated areas, planting on the beach is recommended. In Mahabaleshwar, it is common to place 4 x 3 meters or 4 x 4 meters on raised beds. Planting spacing should be 45 cm and 60 to 75 cm. Row to row In the hills, transplanting is done in March, April, September, October, but in the plains, the months of January and February can be used for this purpose. Strawberries are usually planted in Azad Kashmir Valley during November, December. Plants should keep their roots straight into the soil. The soil around the plant should be tied tightly to allow air to escape. The growing point of the plants should be just above the soil surface. Plants should not be allowed to dry out during planting and immediately after planting. Irrigation should be done later.
Care of young Plantation
The roots of strawberry plants opened up on the brink of the surface. Therefore, the soil should be well-moistured, and hoeing should be done lightly and young plantation be kept weed free during this sort of cultivation method.
Special gardening methods
In cold climates, the soil is covered with crushed soil in winter to protect the roots from head injury. Glacier keeps fruits free from soil, reduces fruit rot, preserves soil moisture, lowers soil temperature in hot weather, protects fruit from frost in mild climates, and protects plants. Protects against frostbite. Several types of mulch are used, but usually one is straw. Strawberries are named after this fact. Black alkytin mulch is also used to cover the soil. This saves irrigation water, prevents weed growth and keeps soil temperature high.
Because strawberries are relatively shallow-rooted, they are prone to famine. Planting in early autumn allows plants to grow well before the onset of winter. However, in this case it is important to make sure that the newly planted runners are irrigated frequently after planting, otherwise the plant mortality is higher. If there is no rain during September and October, irrigate twice a week. This can be reduced to weekly breaks during November. Irrigation can be done once every fortnight in December and January. When fruiting begins, the frequency of irrigation should be increased again. Repeated irrigation at this stage bears maximum fruit.
Application of Fertilizers
Strawberries need moderate amounts of nitrogen. Addition of organic matter to the soil in the form of 50 tons of farm yard fertilizer per hectare is highly desirable. This improves the water storage capacity of the soil and also provides better runner formation. Farm yard fertilizers can be supplemented with chemical fertilizers so that the total amount of nitrogen is 84 to 112 kg per hectare, phosphorus 56 to 84 kg per hectare, and potash 56 to 112 kg per hectare. Phosphate fertilizer should be added to the soil before planting. Apply nitrogenous fertilizer to two fruits (three weeks after planting and again at flowering time) and potash only at flowering time. Applying the right amount of nitrogen increases the yield of early berries.
Red spider mites and cutworms are the main insects of strawberries. Its particles can be controlled with 0.05% monocrotophos + 0.25% wet soluble sulfur. Pested insects can be controlled at 5% per hectare by dusting the soil before mixing with chlorine or hepatochloric dust and mixing well in the soil by the cultivator. The two most common diseases of strawberries are red steel, which is caused by Phytophthora frigaria and black roots. Reducing past lies, such as growing resistant varieties such as steelmaster growth and maintaining plant vigor, and cultivating strawberries with other crops such as fruits (beans, peas, etc.). Strawberries also suffer from viral diseases called yellow edge, cranial and dwarf. Growing strawberry nurseries in the hills helps to test them. Strawberries also shed some chlorotic plants, resulting in genetic isolation. They should not be confused with virus-infected plants and should be stopped.
Harvesting and yields
In the post-plains, fruits are ripening from February to late April and during May and June at altitudes like Mahabaleshwar, Nainital and Kashmir. For the local market, the fruit should be harvested when it is fully ripe, but in remote markets, it should be harvested whenever it is ripe and before the fruit is fully ripe. Should be done. Daily pruning should be done as a priority. Because the fruit is highly volatile, it is packed in flat shallow containers of different types (cardboard, bamboo, paper trays, etc.) with one or two layers of fruit. Harvesting should be done early in the morning in dry condition. Washing the fruit damages its shine and luster. It is prepared according to the season and location. Yield is 20 to 25 tons per hectare, although yields of up to 50 tons per hectare have been achieved under ideal conditions.
After crop handling and marketing
Strawberries are extremely destructive and that is why there is so much care in marketing as well as harvesting and handling. The fruit is usually picked early in the morning and sent to the market on the afternoon of the same day or picked up in the late afternoon, stored overnight in a cool place, and sent to the market the next morning.