Clove Cultivation | Clove Cultivation In Pakistan | Best Method
Clove, the unripe flower bud of the evergreen tree, Cesium aromatum, (Syn. Eugenia caryophyllus) is an important spice noted for its flavor and medicinal value. It is native to Moluccas Island (Indonesia) and was introduced to India by the Assel Indian Company in their spice garden in Kortalalam, Tamil Nadu around 1800. Today, the major producers of this spice are Indonesia, Zanzibar and Madagascar. World production is estimated at 63,700 tons. Indonesia alone accounts for 66% of world production. The major clove-growing regions in India now are Calgary, Trivandrum and Kanyakumari districts of Tamil Nadu, Kattim in Kerala, Koilan and Trivandrum in the southern Kanara district of Karnataka. The food processing industry uses both whole and ground form of cloves in various preparations. Clove oil is used in the perfume, pharmaceutical and flavoring industries. Living Oliverson is also increasingly used in the food processing industry. In Indonesia, KRETEK absorbs a large part of the cigarette industry. Clove is an evergreen tree that often reaches a height of 7 to 15 meters. The leaves have a lot of oil glands on the lower surface.
Climate and Soil
Clove is a strictly tropical plant and requires a warm humid climate with temperatures ranging from 20 to 300C. Humidity Environmental conditions and annual rainfall of 150 to 250 cm are essential. It is growing in all sorts of places from the surface to an altitude of 1500 meters and in and around the sea. Deep black long soil with high humidity found in forest area is best suited for clove cultivation. It grows satisfactorily in well-drained soils on subsequent soils, loam soils and fine black soils. Sandy soil is not suitable
Propagation Of Clove
Clove is propagated by seeds, which are called mother cloves. Seeds are available from June to October. The fruit itself ripens on the tree and is allowed to fall naturally. Such fruits are collected from the ground and sown directly in the nursery or soaked in water overnight and the periwinkle is removed before sowing. Under normal circumstances they lose their viability within a week after harvesting and should therefore be sown as soon as they are collected from the tree. The second method gives faster and higher germination. Larger seeds usually give a higher percentage of germination
Clove Seedlings Practices
The seed bed for sowing is 15 to 20 cm high, one meter wide and easily elongated. The bed should be made of loose soil and a layer of sand (about 5-5-8 cm thick) should be spread on top of it. Seeds are sown at a distance of 2 to 3 cm and at a depth of about 2 cm. Protect seeds from direct sunlight. Germination starts in about 10 to 15 days and can last up to 40 days. At altitude, germination has a long delay, often requiring 60 days. The contracted plants are transplanted in a polythene bag at 30 cm x 15 cm with a mixture of fine soil, sand and a well-digested shepherd (approximately 3: 3: 3 ratio). When seedlings are 18 to 24 months old, they are ready to plant in the field. The nurseries are usually shaded and watered daily to ensure uniformity.
Land preparation and planting
The slopes of the eastern and northeastern hills, well-drained valleys, and riverbanks are ideal for living. The area selected for planting cloves is cleared of pre-monsoon growth and pits of 60 to 75 cm 3 are dug at a distance of 6 to 7 m. The pits are partially filled with mud. Caesar – During the onset of the rainy season in October, in June-July, and in low-lying areas, plants are transplanted into the main field until the end of the monsoon. Clove prefers partial shade.
Irrigation for Clove
Irrigation is essential in the early stages. In places where famine usually occurs, it is recommended to water the pots to save the plants in the first two or three years. Use 20 cm long mud tubes or bamboo tubes with a helper to irrigate 20 vegetables to protect plants during extreme heat. Although trees can survive without irrigation, it is beneficial to irrigate the grown trees for proper benefit and yield.
Harvesting of Clove
Cloves begin to be harvested from the seventh or eighth year after planting and take full effect after about 15 to 20 years. The flowering season is September-October in the plains and December-February at high altitudes. Flower buds are formed on the young flush. It takes about 4 to 6 months for the buds to be ready for harvest. At present, they are less than 2 cm in length. The color changes from green to light pink at the maximum stage for picking living buds. Mature living buds are carefully picked by hand. Care should be taken to pick the buds at the right time as otherwise the quality of the improved product will be substantially lost. When the trees are tall and the clusters of cloves are out of reach, the platform ladder is used to cut the branches. Has an effect.
Curring of Clove
We are telling you about the method of clove cultivation in Pakistan. The cut flower buds are separated from the clusters by hand and spread in the drying yard to dry. It usually takes 4 to 5 days to dry. The correct stage of drying is reached when the stem of the bud is dark brown and the rest of the bud is light brown. Well-dried cloves will be about one-third of the original weight. About 11,000 to 15,000 dried cloves make one kilogram
Clove is often prone to irregular or alternative effects in Pakistan. A well-maintained tree can produce 4 to 8 kg of dry buds under favorable conditions. After the 15th year, the average annual yield can be 2 kg per tree. Clove oil, which is the determinant of spices, is about 16 to 21% in buds. The oil contains 70 to 90% free eugenol and 5 to 12% eugenol acetate