Maize Cultivation | Makai ki Kasht | Cultivation of Maize
Introduction to Maize Crop:
Maize is one of the broadest adaptations to emerging crops under different agricultural climate. Globally, maize is known as the queen of grain because it is the absolute best genetic potential in grain. It’s grown on approximately 150 metric hectares in 160 countries with an honest kind of soils, climates, biodiversity and management practices, accounting for 36% (782 Mt) of worldwide grain production. The U.S is that the largest producer of maize, accounting for about 35% of the world’s total production, and maize is that the driver of the US economy. The US has the absolute best production capacity (gt; 9.6 t ha 1), which is double the worldwide average (4.92 t ha 1). However, the standard productivity in Pakistan is 2.43 t ha 1. Maize is that the third most significant crop in Pakistan after rice and wheat. according to preliminary estimates, it’s cultivated in 8.7 million hectares (2010-11) mainly during the kharif season covering an area of 70%. In Pakistan, Maize contributes about 9% to the national food basket and quite Rs 70 billion. Increase agricultural GDP to Rs 80 billion at current prices, create jobs in farms and downstream agricultural and industrial sectors, and make quite 100 million, people every day . additionally, to basic animal food and standard foods, Maize may be a staple of thousands of economic products, including starch, oil, protein, alcoholic beverages, food sweeteners, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, film, Textiles are included. , Gum, package and paper industries, etc.
Importance Of Maize Crop
Fodder and Feed
Subsequent major field where maize is widely used is for all four livestock, both cattle, poultry and gallery within the sort of seeds and fodder. Green fodder is typically fed to dairy cow to significantly increase milk production. African € outh yarn is that the only suitable quite African corn fodder. When the grains are within the milking stage, the crop possesses to be harvested, this type of lactogenic effect is therefore especially suitable for dairy cows. Maize fodder has higher digestibility than jute, millet and other non-fruit fodder crops.
In most developing countries, Maize is eaten as an instant food. In Pakistan, 65% of maize production are employed as food. Commonly used forms are (1) chapattis (2) porridge of various shapes; boiled or roasted green ears, breakfast foods like corn flakes and popcorn. Sweet and popcorn varieties and category are grown mainly within the US and Europe.
Maize husk, the most husk to which the grains are attached, remains as an agricultural waste after husking. Its many important agricultural and industrial uses. Approximately 15 to 18% of the entire weight of the ear consists of 35 cells of cellulose, 40 ent pentose and 15 l of linen. Their use in agriculture includes as a litter for poultry and as a soil conditioner.
Industrial use supported the physical properties of cabbage when prepared from ground-to-powder, plastics, glue, adhesive, raven, resin, vinegar and artificial leather as fillers for explosives and as pepper and carrier formulations. There are pesticides and insecticides. Supported suppchemical propertiested chemical properties, processed cob uses ferrule, fermentable sugars, solvents, liquid fuels, charcoal, gas and other chemicals by fractionation , and also within the manufacture of pulp, paper and hardboards
Climate And Soil for maize
Maize needs fertile, deep and well-drained soil. However, it are often grown on any quite soil, from deep heavy soils to light sandy ones. However, it is vital that the soil pH doesn’t exceed 7.5 to 8.5, as Maize plants are sensitive to salt water and water, especially within the sprouting stage. Therefore, proper drainage is critical for successful cultivation of this crop. Light loam soils facilitate drainage, but relatively poor water capacity. In contrast, very heavy soils, which have excellent water holding capacity, have relatively poor drainage.Therefore, soils suitable for maize cultivation should have adequate water holding capacity and good drainage. During the monsoon, quite 85% of the maize area is harvested in rain-fed conditions when quite 100% of the annual rainfall falls.
Maize is particularly a warm season crop. it’s cultivated in several parts of the planet under very different climate , from agashi to warmer climates. it’s widely cultivated from water level to an altitude of two ,500 meters. It are often grown successfully where the night temperature doesn’t go below 15.60C (600F). It cannot compete with any stage of its development. In Pakistan, its cultivation extends from the tropical plains of Multan and Sahiwal to the wet hills of Muree and Islam Abad (more than 400. 400 cm of rainfall).
Most kinds of maize in Pakistan are relatively early in maturity (80-95 days). Therefore, so on lookout of a rapid growth rate, adequate supply of soil moisture is critical . it’s estimated that the maize crop requires 50% of the whole water requirement during a fast period of 30-30 days. Lack of adequate water during the grain filling stage adversely affects yield. Although corn are often grown in well-distributed rainfed areas of 60 cm with none additional irrigation, additional irrigation is required just just just just in case of failure of additional rains to urge maximum yield.
Maize needs a strong, compact sugarcane bed that is solid and grass-free. A deep plow should be given, after which two or three harrowings are made to bring the soil to fine tillage. Add 10-15 tons of FYM or compost before final harrowings and mix well with harrow.
A good seed for Maize should be fine but compact and free from weeds. It is important to bury the previous crop denial under the plow of a mold board. At appropriate times, two or three plowings are provided with a wooden plow. If a
is used, it is usually sufficient to disconnect the pair after plowing.
Adequate drainage is essential for kharif cultivation. It can be provided in the form of extremely low-level drains at a distance of 40-50 m (depending on the slope and soil structure) connected to the front and bottom of the slope across the slope. Shallow drains do not impede the movement of cattle or tractors during cultivation. Provide surface drains during sowing.
Sowing of Maize
There are three specific seasons for maize cultivation: The main season is Kharif. Maize is cultivated in the Pakistan subcontinent and spring during Rabi and in northern Pakistan in spring. High yields of maize have been recorded in Rabi and spring crops. High yields of maize are mainly due to better water management and lower incidence of diseases and pests.
In most parts of Pakistan, Maize is sown during Kharif with intermittent monsoon, the actual dates vary from region to region. It is sown in early March in the northeastern hills, in early April in the northwestern hills in April, in May in June in the Pakistan subcontinent, in Punjab the plains from late June to mid-July. In some irrigated areas of Punjab, late sowing of maize may take place till the end of August. Multan, Maize is sown in late January in Multan, Sahiwal Bhahawal Nagar, Vehari and Okara from late October to mid-November. Both spring and spring crops are more or less harvested under irrigation.
Sowing a week before the normal monsoon break, with one or two early irrigations, provides a better chance of plant formation, and yields have increased by 15 to 20 percent.
Maize is sown in rows at 60-75 cm spacing, while plants are spaced 20 to 25 cm apart in rows. At the time of harvest, a population of 60-75 thousand plants per hectare is required to get maximum yield. Row sowing is usually done by drill or by leaving the seed behind the plow. Broadcasting is still common in many parts of the country, especially for rain-fed conditions and for fodder maize. Seventeen to twenty kg of seed is required for cereal crop and 35-40 kg seed per hectare for fodder crop.
:During the early stages, the growth of corn plants is suppressed by weeds. Weeds or tractors can be used to pull the weeds between the rows, while the inside of the rows is drained by hand. Two or three weeds may be necessary, after which the crop will be better stabilized. Is provided. After flowering should not be followed in any way, as it may damage the roots in the background. Effective weed control can be achieved by spraying with semisaine or atrazine @ 1-1.25. Fields should be free from weeds. For the corn fodder crop, we need less grass, because the soil surface is covered by a dense population of corn plants.
Fertilizer And Use Of Fertilizer:
To get higher yields, the corn crop should be heavily fertilized. Field manure or 25 to 30 cart loads of manure should be plowed into the soil before sowing. For hybrid and composite varieties of maize, 100-120 kg nitrogen, as well as 60 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O per hectare, is recommended. The exact level of phosphorus and potash use in the background of soil analysis should be modified. One-third of the total amount of nitrogen and potash and phosphorus should be applied before sowing, while the remaining nitrogen should be applied as a side dressing on the upper knee floor and two equal amounts during flavoring. In very light textured fresh surface fields and soils, application of 10-2 kg zinc sulphate soil before sowing also gives good results. To control soil infested pests, 10-10 kg 10% DDT or BHC per hectare can be mixed with the application of basic fertilizer. Growers of local varieties can apply 40 to 60 kg of nitrogen per hectare of soil.
Irrigation of maize:
In areas that receive about 60 cm of well-distributed rainfall during the growing season, no additional irrigation is required. Insufficient soil moisture during flowering and during the poet’s flowering will significantly reduce yields, especially during the grain filling period. During the grain filling period – in the most sensitive phase, additional irrigation should be applied as needed. The total number of irrigations will depend on the pattern of rainfall distribution. Spring and spring crops are grown entirely under irrigation. The number of irrigations, however, may vary depending on the type of soil and the current temperature.
- Climate: Maize works well over a wide range of climatic conditions, and it grows in tropical and subtropical regions, from surface to altitudes of up to 2,500 meters. However, it is susceptible to frostbite at all stages of its development.
- Soil: Maize can be grown successfully in a variety of soils, from heavy sand to clay. However, high organic matter soils with high pH water with neutral pH are considered good for high productivity. Being a crop sensitive to moisture pressure, especially high soil moisture and saline pressure. It is also important to avoid low drained lowland fields and to make the field more salty. Therefore, for maize cultivation, fields should be selected which have an adequate supply of drainage
Seed And Sowing for maize:
Seed and sowing:
a. Seed selection: Seeds should be free from pests, insects and diseases. It should be free of herb seeds. It should be purchased from reliable sources. It should be a high germination percentage.
b. Seed treatment: To protect the maize crop from major diseases and pests caused by seeds and soil, it is advisable to treat the seeds with fungicides and insecticides before sowing.
As per detail given below
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Irrigation in Maize Cultivation
The management of irrigation water depends on the weather as 80% of maize is cultivated during monsoon season especially in rainy conditions. However, depending on the area where irrigation facilities are available, depending on the capacity of the soil to prevent rainfall and moisture, irrigation should be used in the same way when the crop is needed and the first irrigation should be applied very carefully. There should not be too much water in the drains. Generally, drains should be placed in beds or furrows up to 2/3 of the height of the beds. Young seedlings, high knee stages (V8), flower (VT) and grain filling (GF) are the most sensitive stages of water stress, so irrigation should be ensured at these stages. In cases of bedding systems and limited irrigation water availability, irrigation water can also be used in alternative fur to save more irrigation water. In rain-fed areas, connected pathways help conserve rainwater for its long-term availability in the root zone. For winter corn, it is advisable to keep the soil moist (often light irrigation) between December 15 and February 15 to protect the crop from frostbite.
Weed Management of maize
Weeds are a serious problem for corn, especially in the kharif / monsoon season when they compete with corn for nutrients and yields are up to 35%. Therefore, timely management of grass is required to achieve high yields. Atrazine corn checks the emergence of a wide spectrum of weeds due to its selective and broad spectrum herbicide. Pre-apparent application of atrazine (Atritraf 50 WP, Gasaprem 500 FW); 1-1-1.5 kg IA1 in 600-1 liters of water, Elchlor (Lasso); 2-2.5 kg IH1, Metolachlor ) @ 1.5 -2.0 kg IHA-1, pendimethalin (stump) @ 1-1.5 kg I-Ha-1 is an effective way to control many annual and wide weeds. When spraying, the person should take care of the following precautions during spraying,
Oval to round, yellow-gray spots on leaves. Affected leaves dry out and look like they have been burned. In severe cases, the plants grow well, resulting in ear damage.
The crop can be sprayed with Dethin M-45 or Endophyl @ 35-40 gm or Blue Copper @ 55-60 gm in 18 liters of water, 2 days to 3 sprays at 15 day intervals.
Protection from Pests
These borers feed on the leaves in the first stage. Later, they enter the stems and cobwebs, making the plant ineffective.
harvest After harvesting, the poles and hides should be collected from the field and burned.
– The crop can be sprayed twice in Thiodan 35 EC @ 27 ml to 18 liters of water, once 20-25 days after germination and second time at grain formation (in local areas).
If the attack occurs in the early stages of growth, the caterpillars feed the whole plant and kill it.
– Collect and collect young egg caterpillars as soon as they are detected.
– After harvesting, the field should be plowed to expose the puppies.
– Thiodan 35 EC @ 27 ml should be sprayed in 18 liters of water only as a last resort
Small, soft-bodied insects, usually green. From the hind and young shoots suck the sap and juice of the elders.
The crop can be sprayed with Rogor 30 EC @ 18 ml in 18 liters of water.
Small-winged hoppers lay eggs in the soil to a depth of 7.5 to 20 cm, while adults feed on plants.
Theodan 35 EC @ 25 ml or Ecalux 25 EC @ 28 mm can be sprayed in 18 liters of water.
These insects attack young plants as well as mature plants. Attacks also appear on the roots and lower parts of plants.
Theodan 4 ٪ Dust @ 12-15 kg / ha is applied and mixed well with soil.