maize cultivation

Maize Cultivation

Maize Cultivation | Makai ki Kasht | Cultivation of Maize

Introduction to Maize Crop:

Maize is one of the broadest adaptations to emerging crops under different agricultural climate. Globally, maize is known as the queen of grain because it is the absolute best genetic potential in grain. It’s grown on approximately 150 metric hectares in 160 countries with an honest kind of soils, climates, biodiversity and management practices, accounting for 36% (782 Mt) of worldwide grain production. The U.S is that the largest producer of maize, accounting for about 35% of the world’s total production, and maize is that the driver of the US economy. The US has the absolute best production capacity (gt; 9.6 t ha 1), which is double the worldwide average (4.92 t ha 1). However, the standard productivity in Pakistan is 2.43 t ha 1. Maize is that the third most significant crop in Pakistan after rice and wheat. according to preliminary estimates, it’s cultivated in 8.7 million hectares (2010-11) mainly during the kharif season covering an area of 70%. In Pakistan, Maize contributes about 9% to the national food basket and quite Rs 70 billion. Increase agricultural GDP to Rs 80 billion at current prices, create jobs in farms and downstream agricultural and industrial sectors, and make quite 100 million, people every day . additionally, to basic animal food and standard foods, Maize may be a staple of thousands of economic products, including starch, oil, protein, alcoholic beverages, food sweeteners, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, film, Textiles are included. , Gum, package and paper industries, etc.

Click Here

Importance Of Maize Crop

Fodder and Feed

Subsequent major field where maize is widely used is for all four livestock, both cattle, poultry and gallery within the sort of seeds and fodder. Green fodder is typically fed to dairy cow to significantly increase milk production. African € outh yarn is that the only suitable quite African corn fodder. When the grains are within the milking stage, the crop possesses to be harvested, this type of lactogenic effect is therefore especially suitable for dairy cows. Maize fodder has higher digestibility than jute, millet and other non-fruit fodder crops.

Food

In most developing countries, Maize is eaten as an instant food. In Pakistan, 65% of maize production are employed as food. Commonly used forms are (1) chapattis (2) porridge of various shapes; boiled or roasted green ears, breakfast foods like corn flakes and popcorn. Sweet and popcorn varieties and category are grown mainly within the US and Europe.

Other Uses

Maize husk, the most husk to which the grains are attached, remains as an agricultural waste after husking. Its many important agricultural and industrial uses. Approximately 15 to 18% of the entire weight of the ear consists of 35 cells of cellulose, 40 ent pentose and 15 l of linen. Their use in agriculture includes as a litter for poultry and as a soil conditioner.

Industrial Use

Industrial use supported the physical properties of cabbage when prepared from ground-to-powder, plastics, glue, adhesive, raven, resin, vinegar and artificial leather as fillers for explosives and as pepper and carrier formulations. There are pesticides and insecticides. Supported suppchemical propertiested chemical properties, processed cob uses ferrule, fermentable sugars, solvents, liquid fuels, charcoal, gas and other chemicals by fractionation , and also within the manufacture of pulp, paper and hardboards

Climate And Soil for maize

Maize needs fertile, deep and well-drained soil. However, it are often grown on any quite soil, from deep heavy soils to light sandy ones. However, it is vital that the soil pH doesn’t exceed 7.5 to 8.5, as Maize plants are sensitive to salt water and water, especially within the sprouting stage. Therefore, proper drainage is critical for successful cultivation of this crop. Light loam soils facilitate drainage, but relatively poor water capacity. In contrast, very heavy soils, which have excellent water holding capacity, have relatively poor drainage.Therefore, soils suitable for maize cultivation should have adequate water holding capacity and good drainage. During the monsoon, quite 85% of the maize area is harvested in rain-fed conditions when quite 100% of the annual rainfall falls.

Maize is particularly a warm season crop. it’s cultivated in several parts of the planet under very different climate , from agashi to warmer climates. it’s widely cultivated from water level to an altitude of two ,500 meters. It are often grown successfully where the night temperature doesn’t go below 15.60C (600F). It cannot compete with any stage of its development. In Pakistan, its cultivation extends from the tropical plains of Multan and Sahiwal to the wet hills of Muree and Islam Abad (more than 400. 400 cm of rainfall).

Most kinds of maize in Pakistan are relatively early in maturity (80-95 days). Therefore, so on lookout of a rapid growth rate, adequate supply of soil moisture is critical . it’s estimated that the maize crop requires 50% of the whole water requirement during a fast period of 30-30 days. Lack of adequate water during the grain filling stage adversely affects yield. Although corn are often grown in well-distributed rainfed areas of 60 cm with none additional irrigation, additional irrigation is required just just just just in case of failure of additional rains to urge maximum yield.

Land Preparation

Maize needs a strong, compact sugarcane bed that is solid and grass-free. A deep plow should be given, after which two or three harrowings are made to bring the soil to fine tillage. Add 10-15 tons of FYM or compost before final harrowings and mix well with harrow.

A good seed for Maize should be fine but compact and free from weeds. It is important to bury the previous crop denial under the plow of a mold board. At appropriate times, two or three plowings are provided with a wooden plow. If a


is used, it is usually sufficient to disconnect the pair after plowing.

Adequate drainage is essential for kharif cultivation. It can be provided in the form of extremely low-level drains at a distance of 40-50 m (depending on the slope and soil structure) connected to the front and bottom of the slope across the slope. Shallow drains do not impede the movement of cattle or tractors during cultivation. Provide surface drains during sowing.

Sowing of Maize

There are three specific seasons for maize cultivation: The main season is Kharif. Maize is cultivated in the Pakistan subcontinent and spring during Rabi and in northern Pakistan in spring. High yields of maize have been recorded in Rabi and spring crops. High yields of maize are mainly due to better water management and lower incidence of diseases and pests.

In most parts of Pakistan, Maize is sown during Kharif with intermittent monsoon, the actual dates vary from region to region. It is sown in early March in the northeastern hills, in early April in the northwestern hills in April, in May in June in the Pakistan subcontinent, in Punjab the plains from late June to mid-July. In some irrigated areas of Punjab, late sowing of maize may take place till the end of August. Multan, Maize is sown in late January in Multan, Sahiwal Bhahawal Nagar, Vehari and Okara from late October to mid-November. Both spring and spring crops are more or less harvested under irrigation.

Sowing a week before the normal monsoon break, with one or two early irrigations, provides a better chance of plant formation, and yields have increased by 15 to 20 percent.

Maize is sown in rows at 60-75 cm spacing, while plants are spaced 20 to 25 cm apart in rows. At the time of harvest, a population of 60-75 thousand plants per hectare is required to get maximum yield. Row sowing is usually done by drill or by leaving the seed behind the plow. Broadcasting is still common in many parts of the country, especially for rain-fed conditions and for fodder maize. Seventeen to twenty kg of seed is required for cereal crop and 35-40 kg seed per hectare for fodder crop.

Interculture:

:During the early stages, the growth of corn plants is suppressed by weeds. Weeds or tractors can be used to pull the weeds between the rows, while the inside of the rows is drained by hand. Two or three weeds may be necessary, after which the crop will be better stabilized. Is provided. After flowering should not be followed in any way, as it may damage the roots in the background. Effective weed control can be achieved by spraying with semisaine or atrazine @ 1-1.25. Fields should be free from weeds. For the corn fodder crop, we need less grass, because the soil surface is covered by a dense population of corn plants.

Fertilizer And Use Of Fertilizer:

To get higher yields, the corn crop should be heavily fertilized. Field manure or 25 to 30 cart loads of manure should be plowed into the soil before sowing. For hybrid and composite varieties of maize, 100-120 kg nitrogen, as well as 60 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O per hectare, is recommended. The exact level of phosphorus and potash use in the background of soil analysis should be modified. One-third of the total amount of nitrogen and potash and phosphorus should be applied before sowing, while the remaining nitrogen should be applied as a side dressing on the upper knee floor and two equal amounts during flavoring. In very light textured fresh surface fields and soils, application of 10-2 kg zinc sulphate soil before sowing also gives good results. To control soil infested pests, 10-10 kg 10% DDT or BHC per hectare can be mixed with the application of basic fertilizer. Growers of local varieties can apply 40 to 60 kg of nitrogen per hectare of soil.

Irrigation of maize:

In areas that receive about 60 cm of well-distributed rainfall during the growing season, no additional irrigation is required. Insufficient soil moisture during flowering and during the poet’s flowering will significantly reduce yields, especially during the grain filling period. During the grain filling period – in the most sensitive phase, additional irrigation should be applied as needed. The total number of irrigations will depend on the pattern of rainfall distribution. Spring and spring crops are grown entirely under irrigation. The number of irrigations, however, may vary depending on the type of soil and the current temperature.

Ecological Requirement:

  • Climate: Maize works well over a wide range of climatic conditions, and it grows in tropical and subtropical regions, from surface to altitudes of up to 2,500 meters. However, it is susceptible to frostbite at all stages of its development.
  • Soil: Maize can be grown successfully in a variety of soils, from heavy sand to clay. However, high organic matter soils with high pH water with neutral pH are considered good for high productivity. Being a crop sensitive to moisture pressure, especially high soil moisture and saline pressure. It is also important to avoid low drained lowland fields and to make the field more salty. Therefore, for maize cultivation, fields should be selected which have  an adequate supply of drainage

Seed And Sowing for maize:

Seed and sowing:

a. Seed selection: Seeds should be free from pests, insects and diseases. It should be free of herb seeds. It should be purchased from reliable sources. It should be a high germination percentage.

b. Seed treatment: To protect the maize crop from major diseases and pests caused by seeds and soil, it is advisable to treat the seeds with fungicides and insecticides before sowing.

As per detail given below

[table id=3 /]

Irrigation in Maize Cultivation

The management of irrigation water depends on the weather as 80% of maize is cultivated during monsoon season especially in rainy conditions. However, depending on the area where irrigation facilities are available, depending on the capacity of the soil to prevent rainfall and moisture, irrigation should be used in the same way when the crop is needed and the first irrigation should be applied very carefully. There should not be too much water in the drains. Generally, drains should be placed in beds or furrows up to 2/3 of the height of the beds. Young seedlings, high knee stages (V8), flower (VT) and grain filling (GF) are the most sensitive stages of water stress, so irrigation should be ensured at these stages. In cases of bedding systems and limited irrigation water availability, irrigation water can also be used in alternative fur to save more irrigation water. In rain-fed areas, connected pathways help conserve rainwater for its long-term availability in the root zone. For winter corn, it is advisable to keep the soil moist (often light irrigation) between December 15 and February 15 to protect the crop from frostbite.

Weed Management of maize

Weeds are a serious problem for corn, especially in the kharif / monsoon season when they compete with corn for nutrients and yields are up to 35%. Therefore, timely management of grass is required to achieve high yields. Atrazine corn checks the emergence of a wide spectrum of weeds due to its selective and broad spectrum herbicide. Pre-apparent application of atrazine (Atritraf 50 WP, Gasaprem 500 FW); 1-1-1.5 kg IA1 in 600-1 liters of water, Elchlor (Lasso); 2-2.5 kg IH1, Metolachlor ) @ 1.5 -2.0 kg IHA-1, pendimethalin (stump) @ 1-1.5 kg I-Ha-1 is an effective way to control many annual and wide weeds. When spraying, the person should take care of the following precautions during spraying,

Diseases

Leaf Blight

Oval to round, yellow-gray spots on leaves. Affected leaves dry out and look like they have been burned. In severe cases, the plants grow well, resulting in ear damage.

Option:

The crop can be sprayed with Dethin M-45 or Endophyl @ 35-40 gm or Blue Copper @ 55-60 gm in 18 liters of water, 2 days to 3 sprays at 15 day intervals.

Protection from Pests​

Stem Borer

These borers feed on the leaves in the first stage. Later, they enter the stems and cobwebs, making the plant ineffective.

Option:

harvest After harvesting, the poles and hides should be collected from the field and burned.

– The crop can be sprayed twice in Thiodan 35 EC @ 27 ml to 18 liters of water, once 20-25 days after germination and second time at grain formation (in local areas).

Red-haired Caterpillars

If the attack occurs in the early stages of growth, the caterpillars feed the whole plant and kill it.

Option:

– Collect and collect young egg caterpillars as soon as they are detected.

– After harvesting, the field should be plowed to expose the puppies.

– Thiodan 35 EC @ 27 ml should be sprayed in 18 liters of water only as a last resort

Aphids

Small, soft-bodied insects, usually green. From the hind and young shoots suck the sap and juice of the elders.

Option:

The crop can be sprayed with Rogor 30 EC @ 18 ml in 18 liters of water.

Grass hoppers

Small-winged hoppers lay eggs in the soil to a depth of 7.5 to 20 cm, while adults feed on plants.

Option:

Theodan 35 EC @ 25 ml or Ecalux 25 EC @ 28 mm can be sprayed in 18 liters of water.

Termites:

These insects attack young plants as well as mature plants. Attacks also appear on the roots and lower parts of plants.

Option:

Theodan 4 ٪ Dust @ 12-15 kg / ha is applied and mixed well with soil.

8 thoughts on “Maize Cultivation”

  1. Detail: http://zrenieblog.ru/ http://zrenieblog.ru/ http://zrenieblog.ru/
    歷史
    六七千年前的先民就開始釣魚。周文王曾和兒子們在靈沼釣魚取樂。戰國時范蠡也愛釣魚,常把所釣之魚供給越王勾踐食用。 二十世紀八十年代,中國大陸的各級釣魚協會成立,釣魚地點也從自然水域向養殖水域過度,所釣之魚則從粗養向細養過度。人數增多、水體污染及濫捕濫撈導致釣魚難度上升。釣魚協會開始與漁民和農民簽訂文件,使更多釣者能夠在養殖水域釣魚,達到了雙贏的目的。 二十世紀九十年代初,來自台灣的懸釣法走紅大陸,各地開始建造標準釣池。 二十世紀末,發達國家的釣者提倡回顧自然,引發新一輪野釣戰,而中國的釣者則更青睞精養魚池。]

    工具

    一种钓鱼竿机械部分示意图
    最基本的钓具包括:鱼竿、鱼线、鱼钩、沉坨(又名沉子)、浮标(又名鱼漂)、鱼饵。]:1其他辅助钓具包括:失手绳、钓箱、线轮、抄网、鱼篓、渔具盒、钓鱼服、钓鱼鞋等。]:1

    钓竿一般由玻璃纖維或碳纖維轻而有力的竿状物质製成,钓竿和鱼饵用丝线联接。一般的鱼饵可以是蚯蚓、米饭、蝦子、菜叶、苍蝇、蛆等,现代有专门制作好(多数由自己配置的半成品)的粉製鱼饵出售。鱼饵挂在鱼鉤上,不同的對象鱼有不同的釣組配置。在周围水面撒一些誘餌通常会有較好的集魚效果。

    钓具
    鱼竿
    主条目:鱼竿
    钓鱼的鱼竿按照材质包括:传统竹竿、玻璃纤维竿、碳素竿,按照钓法包括:手竿、矶竿、海竿(又名甩竿),按照所钓鱼类包括:溪流小继竿、日鲫竿(又名河内竿)、鲤竿、矶中小物竿。]:6-8

    鱼钩
    主条目:鱼钩
    鱼钩就是垂钓用的钩,主要分为:有倒钩、无倒钩、毛钩。]:14

    鱼线
    主条目:鱼线
    鱼线就是垂钓时绑接鱼竿和鱼钩的线,历史上曾使用蚕丝(远古日本)、发丝(江户时期日本)、马尾(西欧)、二枚贝(地中海)、蛛网丝(夏威夷)、琼麻(东南亚)、尼龙钓线(美国)。]:25

    鱼漂
    主条目:鱼漂
    鱼漂又名浮标,垂钓时栓在鱼线上的能漂浮的东西,主要用于搜集水底情报,查看鱼汛,观察鱼饵存留状态,以及水底水流起伏变化。]:36

    鱼饵
    主条目:鱼饵
    鱼饵分为诱饵和钓饵,是一种用来吸引鱼群和垂钓时使用的物品,钓饵分为荤饵、素饵、拟饵、拉饵。]:170

    沉子
    主条目:沉子
    沉子又名沉坨、铅锤,是一种调节鱼漂的工具。]:45

    卷线器
    主条目:卷线器
    卷线器主要安装在海竿和矶竿上的一种卷线的工具。]:63

    连结具
    主条目:连结具
    连结具是连结鱼线与钓竿、母线与子线的一种连结物,使用最广泛的是连结环。]:55

    识鱼
    鱼类的视力不如人类,距离、宽度均无法和人类的视力比较,鱼类对水色、绿色比较敏感,鱼类的嗅觉非常灵敏,鱼类的听觉也非常灵敏,钓鲤鱼时,不能在岸上大声谈笑、走动不停,鱼类的思考能力非常弱,鱼类应对周边环境随着气象、水温、水色、潮流、流速、水量的变化而变化,于是便出现了在同一个池塘、水库、湖泊,往日钓鱼收获大,今日少,上午收获大,下午少,晴天大,雨天少等情况。]:114-117淡水钓鱼,中国大陆经常垂钓的鱼类对象是本地鲫鱼、日本鲫、非洲鲫、鲤鱼、游鱼、罗非鱼、黄刺鱼(黄鸭叫)、黄尾、鳊鱼、青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼、鳙鱼,台湾经常垂钓的鱼类对象是本地鲫鱼、日本鲫、吴郭鱼(罗非鱼)、溪哥仔和红猫(粗首马口鱲)、斗鱼、罗汉鱼、苦花、三角姑(河鮠)、竹蒿头(密鱼)。]:117

    影响鱼类的6大因素主要是:季节变更、气温高低、水的涨落、风的大小、水的清浊、天气阴晴

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *